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The life ofRekhmara 



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THE LIFE 

OF 

REKHMARA 



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THE LIFE 

OF 

REKHMARA 

VEZIR OF UPPER EGYPT UNDER THOTHMES III 
AND AMENHETEP II {circa b.c. 1471-1448) 
WITH TWENTY-TWO PLATES 

By PERCY E. NEWBERRY 

Author of 

Bent Hasan^ El Bersheh f The Amherst Papyri^ etc 



WESTMINSTER 

ARCHIBALD CONSTABLE AND CO LTD 

2 WHITEHALL GARDENS 
1900 



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BUTLER & TANNER, 
THE SELWOOD PRINTING WORKS, 
FROMB, AND LONDON. 



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TO 

MY WIFE 
HELENE NEWBERRY, 
WHO FOR THREE YEARS WAS MY COMPANION 
AT THEBES, THIS VOLUME 
IS AFFECTIONATELY 
INSCRIBED. 



DP<ie P 24-03 



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CONTENTS 



PAGE 



Preface 9 

I. Introduction — 

1. Situation of the Tomb 11 

2. Previous Work at the Tomb ......... 11 

3. The Life and Family History of Rekhmara ..... 13 

II. Detailed Description op the Tomb and Explanation of the Scenes and In- 
scriptions — 

A. Architectural Features and System of Decoration 21 

B. The Scenes and Inscriptions 22 

1. The Vezir's Office and the Inscription detailing his Duties .... 22 

2. Inspection of the Apu or Taxes of Upper Egypt 26 

3. Inscription Recounting the Honours of Rekhmara 33 

4. Inscription Recording the Installation of Rekhmara into the Vezirate . 33 

5. Rekhmara and the Members of his Family . 34 

6. Rekhmaca Receives Grain, etc., in the Temple of Amen .... 35 

7. Rekhmara Receives the Petitions of the Poor 35 

8. Rekhmara Inspects the Artificers of the Temple 36 

9. Rekhmara Inspects the Brickmakers, Sculptors, etc., of the Temple . 37 
10. Rekhmara Inspects the Provisions of the Divine Offerings .... 38 

List of Plates 40 



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PREFACE 



In publishing a memoir on the great tomb of Rekhmara my object is to give to students 
and others interested in Egyptian Archaeology and History a faithful record of one of 



All the plates are reductions to a convenient size of tracings in outline of the scenes 
and inscriptions found in the tomb. They are printed in red in preference to black, not 
only because that colour was used for outline work by every Egyptian artist, but also 



In the letterpress I have confined myself to giving a brief notice of what is known 
of the life of Rekhmara, together with summaries of the contents of the inscriptions and 
short explanatory descriptions of the scenes occurring in his tomb. Full translations of 
the hieroglyphic texts are not given, for such, at present, must of necessity be tentative, 
and, to be useful, would entail printing very long commentaries. 

Those students who possess M. Virey's Le tombeau de Rekhmara, published in the 
Memoires de la Mission Archeologique Franqaise, may perhaps ask why it is necessary to 
duplicate copies of an already published tomb. I would in reply pray them to compare 
the French publication with my own. 

The present volume represents about one-third of the paintings and inscriptions in 
Rekhmara's tomb, and gives nearly all those dealing with the great vezir's official career. 
The scenes relating to Rekhmara's funeral, and the ceremonies connected therewith, as 
well as the scenes showing foreigners bringing tribute to the Theban vezir, will be pub- 
lished in facsimile in future volumes. 

My friend Professor Spiegelberg gave me much preliminary help in the preparation 
of the Summary of the inscription detailing the duties of the vezir, and kindly checked 
my copy with the original at Thebes in 1896 ; to him, therefore, I wish to express my 
sincerest thanks. 



the most important private monuments in Egypt. 



because it appears softer, and, to my mind, more pleasing to the eye. 



PERCY E. NEWBERRY 



39 Palace Mansions, 
Kensington. 




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THE TOMB OF REKHMARA 



I. INTR( 

I. SITUATION OF THE TOMB. 

Opposite to the modern town of Luxor, and on 
the edge of the western desert, there still 
stands, though in ruinous condition, the temple 
which Rameses II. built in honour of the 
Theban god Amen. A short distance behind 
this temple there rises a limestone hill, called 
by the Arabs El Gebel Sheikh Abd el Kurneh 
— the hill of the Sheikh named Abd el Kurneh, 
a holy man whose ruined brick-constructed 
tomb is built upon its summit. On the western 
side many rock-cut tombs have been excavated, 
but these are for the most part uninscribed, and 
consequently of little interest. The south- 
western face, however, is thickly honeycombed 
with richly painted and inscribed tombs; of 
these the greater number belong to officials of 
the famous rulers Hatshepsut and Thothmes 
III. Several of the Vezirs and Chancellors 
of these monarchs were buried here. Here, 
too, are still to be seen the last resting-places 
of many officers of lower rank, including 
Generals and Governors of Towns and Dis- 
tricts, Superintendents of the Royal Granaries 
and Storehouses, Overseers of Canals and 
Fields, as well as of Architects, Scribes, and 
Priests. Among this wealth of private monu- 
ments, one stands out prominently before all 
the rest. This is the tomb of the famous 
Rekhmara, the Governor of Thebes and Prime 
Minister of his illustrious sovereign Thothmes 
III. 

Situated about half way up the hill, this tomb 



is easily reached from the temple of Rameses 
II. — generally known as the Ramesseum — by a 
well-beaten path which threads its way to the 
north-east, among the many mummy pits sunk 
in the ground along the desert edge. The 
entrance is nearly in a line with the axis of the 
temple, but it is hidden from the view of any one 
approaching from the plain by the crude brick 
walls of the house of the Todrus family, which 
is built immediately in front of it. The visitor, 
however, can have no difficulty in finding the 
tomb, even though he be unaccompanied by a 
dragoman, for all the inhabitants of the Kurneh 
village know its precise position. It is gener- 
ally called among the Arabs "el bab khamsa 
we telatin" (Tomb No. 35), thirty-five being 
the number given to it by Wilkinson as far 
back as 1825. At present it is in charge of a 
guard appointed by the authorities of the Gizeh 
Museum, and can only be seen on the produc- 
tion of a Government "tourist's ticket." 

II. PREVIOUS WORK AT THE TOMB. 

Unknown to the members of the great 
French expedition under Napoleon, the tomb 
of Rekhmara appears to have been first visited 
by the explorer Cailliaud, who travelled in 
Egypt and Nubia during the years 1819 to 
1822. He has unfortunately left us no descrip- 
tion of this historic monument, but from the 
fact that he copied several of the scenes illus- 
trative of the arts and manners of the ancient 
Egyptians, it is clear that he recognised the 
importance of the paintings which have since 



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12 



THE TOMB OF REKHMARA 



made the tomb one of the most famous in the 
Nile Valley. These copies of Cailliaud were 
executed in colour and published by him in his 
Recherches 1 in the year 1831. 

In 1825, during a residence of some months 
at Thebes, Sir Gardner Wilkinson spent much 
time in copying the mural paintings of the 
private tombs of the Kurneh necropolis. In a 
letter of this date which is still extant the 
tomb of Rekhmara is described by this English 
Egyptologist as " the most curious of all " that 
he had seen in Egypt, "more light being thrown 
by the paintings in it on the ancient civilization 
of the Nile Valley than any hitherto dis- 
covered." Wilkinson made copies of many of the 
scenes which he found here, and some of these 
he used for illustrating his great work on The 
Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians} 

Champollion, and his companion Rosellini, 
both stopped some weeks at Thebes on their 
way up the Nile in the winter of 1828. They 
carefully explored the Kurneh necropolis, but 
only copied a few of the scenes in the private 
tombs, including some of those in the tomb of 
Rekhmara. 8 In Champollion's Notices* the 
vestibule of this tomb is described, and it seems 
to have been in much the same condition in 
1828 as we find it now, except that the scene of 
foreigners was in a much better state of pre- 

1 The full title of this work is : Recherches sur les 
Arts et Metiers, les usages de la Vie Civile et Domestique 
des Anciens Peuples de VEgypt, de la Nubie et de 
VEthiope, par F. Cailliaud, recueillies sur les lieux par 
VAuteur dans les anne'es 1819 d 1822; Paris, 1831-1837. 
4to. 89 coloured plates. 

2 Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians. 
London, 1837. Vol. L, pi. iv., etc. The scene of foreign- 
ers in Birch's edition of 1878 is from a drawing by 
Bonomi (British Museum, Add. MS. 29817, ff. 32-35) ; cf . 
also Wilkinson's Topography of Thebes ; London, 1835, 
pp. 151-2. 

3 J. F. Champollion, Monuments de VEgypte et de la 
Nubie ; Paris, 1835-45; pis. clxi., clxiv., etc. I. Rosellini, 
J Monumenti delV Egitto e della Nubia ; Pisa, 1832-44. 
M.C.j pis. lii.-lxiv., etc. 

4 Notices descriptifs ; Paris, 1844-79 ; vol. i., pp. 505- 
510. 



servation. He writes that " les parois C.D.F." 
(corresponding to the walls A.C.D. and B.L.M. 
of my Sketch Plan, p. 22) " n'offrent plus que 
des ddbris, en E. £tait une longue stfele peinte 
en hi^roglyphes aujourd'hui presque invisible." 
Of wall A.B. he says that it is " extrGmement 
endommag^e, on y voit des scenes pastorales ou 
agricoles, des hommes conduisant boeufs." 

In the summer of 1832, Bonomi, who was 
then a member of Robert Hay's staff of artists, 
made coloured drawings to a small scale of 
about half the mural paintings in the tomb, 
and Hay himself executed many outline 
tracings of the most interesting scenes and 
groups of figures. The leader of the expedi- 
tion also made numerous copies of the inscrip- 
tions, which permit us to restore much that has 
since been destroyed. All these drawings, 
together with a plan of the tomb, are now 
preserved among the Hay manuscripts in the 
British Museum. 6 

In the winter of the same year, G. A. 
Hoskins, an English traveller, made scale 
drawings 6 of the scene of foreigners in the 
vestibule, and " a complete section in sixteen 
large drawings of the long inner chamber." A 
part of the scene of foreign tribute, which he 
describes as " one of the most gorgeous and 
magnificent paintings that adorn the walls of 
Thebes," was published in colour in 1835 ; but 
the other drawings, which took him " two 
months, working several hours a day," were 
never reproduced, and I have not been able to 
trace in whose possession they now are. The 
state of the paintings was, according to 
Hoskins, " almost quite fresh," but the hiero- 
glyphic inscriptions were " very much defaced." 
On his second visit to Egypt in 1863, 7 the 



5 BonomTs drawings are bound up in the Add. MS. 
29817. Hay's tracings may be found in the Add. MSS. 
29825 A and 29852 A, and his copies of the inscriptions 
in Add. MSS. 29822, ff. 68-80, and 29827, ff. 69-76. 

6 Travels in Ethiopia ; London, 1835 ; p. 328. 

7 A Winter in Upper and Lou er Egypt ; London, 1863. 



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THE LIFE AND FAMILY 



HISTORY OF REKHMABA 



13 



explorer found the paintings so defaced that he 
determined to publish his drawings ; but, un- 
fortunately, " the only artist who was able to 
draw them on stone was too much occupied in 
other ways to undertake the work." It is 
interesting to note that Hoskins mentions that 
in 1863 the vestibule of the tomb was occupied 
by an Arab family, and that in the inner 
passage cows and other live stock were 
stabled. 

Ten years after Hoskins' visit to Thebes 
came the members of the great Prussian expe- 
dition, under Dr. Richard Lepsius. Compara- 
tively speaking, they did very little work among 
the private tombs. In that of Rekhmara the 
scenes of the brickmakers and sculptors alone 
were copied, and in the drawing 1 of the well or 
pond from which two labourers are represented 
fetching water for the brickmakers there is a 
curious inaccuracy. Around the margin of the 
pond, in the great Prussian publication, are 
drawn a number of conventional plants, which 
only existed' in the modern draughtsman's 
imagination. 

Prom the time of Lepsius very little serious 
work has been done in the tomb. Prisse 
d'Avennes 2 made a few copies of the best 
preserved scenes, and Piehl 3 and Schiaparelli/ 
some years later, copied numbers of the inscrip- 
tions. Then came M. Virey, who, in 1888, was 
commissioned by the Mission Fransaise au Caire 
to facsimile the tomb in its entirety. His 
copies were published in 1889, in the fifth 
volume of the Memoirs of the French Archaeo- 
logical Mission at Cairo; 6 and although the work 

1 Published in Lepsius' Denkmtiler, Abth. III. bis. 40, 41. 

8 Histoire de Vart Egyptien, 1863. The plates of this 
work are not numbered. 

8 Inscriptions Hiiroglyphiques recueitties en Europe 
et en Egypte ; Stockholm, 1886 ; pis. cxiii., cxiv. ; text 
pp. 92-93. 

4 These copies have been made use of by Virey in his 
publication of Le Tombeau de Rekhmara, p. 105, and cf. 
p. 131. 

6 Mdmoires publite par les membres de la mission 
Archeologique Francaise au Caire ; tome cinquieme, l er 



was received with favour in some quarters, the 
necessity for another publication of this historic 
tomb was at once obvious to all serious Egypt- 
ologists. It will be enough to mention in 
passing that M. Virey made no attempt to copy 
some of the most important scenes, and that his 
copy of the long inscription detailing the duties 
of the Vezir was so inaccurate that he actually 
translated it from the wrong end without 
detecting his error. From Virey's copy, 
M. E. Revillout 6 attempted a study of this 
important text, but the material at his dis- 
posal hardly allowed of any very satisfactory 
result. 

III. THE LIFE AND FAMILY HISTORY 
OF REKHMARA. 

Rekhmara, " Knowing as Ra," was the scion 
of an ancient family of nobles, several members 
of which had occupied the most important 
administrative positions in Upper Egypt. His 
paternal great-grandfather, Aahmes, 7 and his 
paternal grandfather, Aa-ma-thu, had both 
held the vezirate of Upper Egypt and the 
governorship of Thebes under Thothmes I. (?), 
Thothmes II., 8 and Hatshepsut. His paternal 
uncle User filled the same high office from the 
twenty-first 9 to the twenty-eighth year of the 

Fasc. Le Tombeau de Rekhmara, par Ph. Virey ; Paris, 
1889. (Miniature de l'instruction publique et des Beaux-arts.) 

6 Introduction Historique sur V administration et 
V organisation Ugale des terres dans Vancienne Egypte, 
in the Revue Egyptologique, vol. vii., 90-100, and vol. viii., 
149 et seq. 

7 The authorities for the connecting links and the 
following statements are given in the notes to the 
Genealogical Table, p. 16. 

8 Under Thothmes II., we have recorded a vezir of 
Upper Egypt named Hapusenb, who was not a member 
of Rekhmara's family, but, as I have shown elsewhere 
(Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., vol. xxii., p. 31), there is reason 
to believe that he only held this exalted office for a 
very short time, perhaps only for a few weeks or days. 

9 An inscription of this date names User as vezir at 
that time, but this does not, of course, prove that he had 
not been the chief minister for some months or years pre- 
viously. The same remark applies to Rekhmara, for the 



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14 



THE TOMB OF REKHMARA 



reign of Thothmes III., and Rekhmara himself 
bore these proud titles from the thirty-second 
year of that great sovereign till his death early 
in the reign of Amenhetep II. 1 His adminis- 
tration, therefore, covered the period of Egypt's 
greatest prosperity. 

But little is known of Rekhmara's paternal 
great-grandfather. His name, Aahmes, " Child 
of Aah " (the Moon god), was a common one 
at the beginning of the eighteenth dynasty, 
but there are only two monuments at present 
known which bear his name. One of these is 
rer-rn^ vwvsv^e-^ his tomb at Thebes ; 2 the other is the tomb of 
-}^uff zx^Z^f^"- his grand-nephew User in the Sheikh Abd el 
/v^^.cp . Kurneh. His mother, Aah-hetep, " Aah is 
contented," was probably the wife of some 
distinguished noble, whose name is unfortu- 
nately lost. No royal cartouche is to be found 
in the tomb-chapel of Aahmes, but it is certain 
that he must belong to the early part of the 
reign of Hatshepsut, or to the period imme- 
diately preceding her. Among his titles we 
may note that of hen neter Mdat, "Priest of 
Ma' at " (the goddess of Truth), which seems to 
have been a sacerdotal title closely connected 
with the vezirate. 3 

Aa-ma-thu, son of Aahmes, succeeded his 
father in the offices of vezir and governor of 
Thebes. He appears to have been a famous 
administrator, and Rekhmara usually prefers to 
call himself son 4 of Aa-ma-thu, although in 
reality he was his grandson. In the tomb of 



32nd year (the date given above) simply occurs in some 
accounts of that year, and mentions Rekhmara as being 
then vezir (Louvre Papyrus, 3326). The death of User 
appears to have occurred in the 28th year of Thothmes III. 
(vide the stela of his steward Amenemhat at Kurneh), and 
it is probable that he was immediately succeeded by 
Rekhmara. 

1 See page 20. 

2 It was inhabited for some years by Wilkinson, who 
built a high crude brick wall round its outer court. 
Hay also lived in it for several months. It is still known 
amongst the Kurnawi Arabs by the name of Kasr or 
Beyt Wilkinson, " the castle or house of Wilkinson." 

8 See page 15. 4 See pi. xviii., etc. 



Aahmes he is represented offering to his father, 
and is there named a mer per hez neb, " super- 
intendent of the house of silver," mer seshu ne 
Amen, "librarian of Amen," and hen neter 
Mdat, " priest of Ma e at." Aa-ma-thu' s portrait 
is given in several of his descendants' tomb- 
chapels at Thebes, 6 and it is found in the ceno- 
taph of User at (rebel Silsileh, where also may 
be seen the portraits of his wife, Ta-aa-ma-thu, 
and their children, ten in number. Amenhetep, 
the second son, a " superintendent of the 
storehouse of Amen," was buried near his 
grandfather at Thebes. Nefer-uben, 6 the third 
son, attained the position of Efafc-priest of 
Amen, and Nekht, the fourth son, attained the 
like rank in the service of the goddess Mut at 
Karnak. The names of his younger sons and 
daughters are given in the genealogical table. 

User, the eldest child, was elected vezir and 
governor of Thebes sometime before the end 
of the twenty-first year of Thothmes III. 7 Of 
his boyhood we know nothing, but he married 
at an early age the lady Thua, by whom he 
had issue thirteen children, six sons and seven 
daughters. The eldest son, Mery, was evidently 
trained to succeed his father in the vezirate, for 
as a child he entered the service of the goddess 
Ma'at. 8 He probably pre-deceased his father, 
but before his death had reached the rank of 
a hen neter Mdat, " priest of Ma'at." The 
second son, Sa-menkh, attained to no higher 
dignity than scribe of Amen. The third son 
served Amen in the temple of Zer-zerui (D£r-el- 
Bahari). The fourth, named Amenemhat, was 
an Cfofc-priest of Amen ; and one of the 
daughters, Bak by name, entered the service 
of the Theban god as a musician. At Thebes 



6 Tombs of Amenhetep, User, and Rekhmara (see pi. 

2d.). 

6 Cenotaph of User at Gebel Silsileh and tomb of 
Rekhmara (see pi. iv.). 

7 Vide supra (p. 13, note 9). 

8 It seems that the vezirs were always chosen from 
members of the cult of Ma'at. 



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HISTORY OF REKHMARA 



15 



there are two tomb-chapels of this User. One, 
unfinished, has a magnificent facade, and served 
till lately as the abode of the Arab family of 
Mustapha Ahmed. It contains some beautiful 
sculpture, and among other scenes is a repre- 
sentation of Thothmes III., seated in a palan- 
quin and borne in a triumphal procession by his 
courtiers. It contains also fragments of texts 
parallel to those published in plates ii., iii., ix. 
and x. of the present volume. The second 
tomb-chapel of User 1 at Thebes is situated 
some fifty feet above the one already mentioned : 
it was once elaborately painted, though time 
and the Arabs have destroyed nearly all the 
walls. User's name occurs as the owner of the 
tomb, in some fragmentary scenes in the shrine, 
where also can be, deciphered the names of his 
wife and four of their children. Portraits of 
User and various members of his family are 
also found in his cenotaph at (rebel Silsileh, as 
well as in the tomb of his nephew Rekhmara, 2 
and in that of his steward, Amenemhat, at 
Kurneh. In the tomb-chapel of the latter 
personage is a stela dated in the twenty-eighth 
year of Thothmes III., probably the date at 
which User died. In the Egyptian Museum 
of the Louvre is a portrait statue of him, 8 while 
at Thebes and Grebel Silsileh some of his officials 
are named. His steward, Amenemhat, who 
has already been mentioned, was a " scribe of 
the accounts of corn " and an " overseer of the 
canal-workers." The names of his ancestors 
and family are given in his tomb, the father, 
Tahuti, bearing the somewhat rare title of mer 
khesbu, "superintendent of ploughed land." At 
Grebel Silsileh there is a stela cut in the rock 
naming Amenemhat and his children ; he 
is also mentioned in the cenotaph of User. 
On the latter monument we read of two 



1 He is named here Amen-user, but an inscription in 
the tomb of his steward, Amenemhat, leaves no doubt as 
to his identification with the vezir User. 

2 See plate xi. 

3 See Newberry in Froc. Soc. Bibl. Arch. } vol. xxi., p. 306. 



" registrars of the vezir," and the name is 
given of User's librarian, Neb-dedu. 

Rekhmara, the nephew of User, was the 
eldest child of Aa-ma-thu's third son Nefer- 
uben, by a nebt per, " lady of the house," named 
Betau. The father, as we have seen above, 
held no very exalted position ; he was simply an 
£fa6-priest of Amen. The parentage of his 
mother is not recorded, but as she received the 
title of seten kheker, " royal ornament," we may 
perhaps conclude that she was of aristocratic 
birth. Of Rekhmara' s early years we unfortu- 
nately know nothing, but it is evident that he 
must have received a most careful training, and 
doubtless, like his uncle and grandfather, he was 
educated by the priests of the cult of Ma e at. 
When his name first appears in history (in some 
accounts of the thirty-second year of Thothmes 
III.), he had reached the highest position that 
it was possible for an Egyptian noble to fill : he 
was already Governor of Thebes and Vezir of 
Upper Egypt. It is probable that he followed 
the usual custom of the ancient Egyptians and 
married while he was yet a young man. The 
name of his wife, Meryt, occurs in several scenes 
in his tomb, but no clue is given as to her 
parents, unless, as may possibly be the case, the 
Bak and A-tau mentioned in an inscription in the 
vestibule 4 records the names of her father and 
mother. The children that she bore her husband 
were apparently all males, for there are no 
daughters named in any of the scenes, 
men-kheper-senb, the eldest of their six sons, 
was a "Scribe of the Divine Offerings of Amen." 
Amenhetep, the second, was a "divine sahu" and 
scribe. Amenemhat, the third, filled the impor- 
tant and lucrative office of " Superintendent of 
the Storehouse of Amen." Of the three 
youngest sons only the name of one — Usertsen 
— is preserved. The genealogical table on the 
next page gives complete references to all the 
inscriptions mentioning the members of this 
distinguished family of nobles. 

* See p. 34. 



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Digitized by 



THE LIFE AND FAMILY HISTORY OF REKHMARA 



17 



In the inscription of the stela 
which gives Rekhmara's address 
to posterity he calls himself " a 
noble second only to the king," 1 
and his numerous titles prove 
that this was not an empty boast 
of the autobiographer. Of the 
many important civil offices which 
he held, one stands out promin- 
ently before all the rest — he was 
the zat or Prime Minister of 
the king. This title 2 I have 
throughout the present volume 
translated by the Eastern word 
Vezir, which means " the chief 
Minister of State under a prince." 
The history of the Egyptian title 
is interesting. The word itself is 
derived from zau, " a man," and 
seems originally to have meant 
" the man par excellence" in con- 
tradistinction to the sovereign, 
who was the neter or god. From 
the earliest period of Egyptian 
history the office of Vezir was 
the most popular and perhaps the 
most coveted position that a 
commoner could hold. In the 
Fourth Dynasty relationship with the king 
generally led to the choice, just as in Old 
Japan the Emperor's son was usually chosen 
Prime Minister. In somewhat later times the 
zat was selected from the rekh m seten, " king's 
friends," and in times of great national emer- 
gency any man celebrated for wisdom and 
discretion, no matter to what rank he belonged, 
was generally appointed. Several instances are 
recorded of Egyptian sovereigns marrying their 
Vezirs' sisters or daughters, and there is reason to 
believe that on more than one occasion the found- 

1 Vide pi. vi., I. 3. 

2 I have prepared an exhaustive study of the title zat ; 
which will appear in a future number of the Proceedings 
of the Society of Biblical Archaeology, 





























/ 












Thebes 


i: 


























Klrpliuntmo 




1 ?J°. • 



Map 



of Upper Egypt at the Time of Rekhmara. 

ers of dynasties were Vezirs who had succeeded 
in usurping the throne of their lawful ruler. 

Up to the time of Thothmes III. there 
appears to have been but one Vezir appointed 
to look after the administration of the whole 
country from the cataract of Assuan to 
the Mediterranean. Early in that reign, how- 
ever, the government was decentralized, 8 and 

8 I have not been able to find any evidence of two Vezirs 
holding office at the same time prior to this reign, and a 
comparison of the titles of officers under the earlier Kings 
of the Eighteenth Dynasty with those of officers of the 
latter half of the reign of Thothmes III. has led me to the 
above conclusion. At the end of the Eighteenth Dynasty 
there are several references to the two Vezirs. (Of. Tomb 
of Neferhetep at Thebes, also A.Z., xxxiii., 24, and for a 
later period Txco Hieroglyphic Papyri, xiii., fragment 45, 

B 



Digitized by 



18 



THE TOMB OF REKHMARA 



two Vezirs were appointed, the seats of 
their respective governments being Thebes in 
the south and Memphis in the north. The 
boundary between these two political divisions 
was a short distance to the north of Siufc, for 
that place seems to have been included within 
the administration of the vezirate of Upper 
Egypt. In the important scene of taxation 
(pis. v. and vi.) the names of the towns of the 
southern division are given, and these permit 
us to restore a map of the country between 
Assuan and Siut at the time of Rekhmara 
(see the map on previous page). Some of the 
place-names mentioned in this scene, however, 
are not found in any other inscriptions, and it 
is impossible for us as yet to fix with any cer- 
tainty their exact position. For the efficient 
administration of this populous tract of fertile 
country Rekhmara was directly responsible to 
his sovereign. 

Ex officio, in virtue of his position of Vezir, 
Rekhmara was mer net, " Governor of the 
Royal Town" (Thebes), and ta, "Chief Justice." 
The latter title is found in Egyptian inscriptions 
of all periods, but it has only lately been 
explained. The hieroglyph, it should be noted, 
is a word sign for ta, and signifies primarily 
" a gate," or perhaps more correctly " the gate 
of justice," for the sign is generally surmounted 
by a cornice of uraei. Erman long ago 
remarked that the Egyptians of all ages pre- 
ferred to speak of the government buildings 
rather than of the ruler. " The Palace," " the 
King's House," " the Great Double Hall," and 
above all "the Great House" (per da, 
"pharaoh"), are the usual appellatives for king. 
So it seems that the Chief Justice (who no 
doubt in the most primitive times was also the 
king) was called " the gate of justice." The 
reason of this is not far to seek. Amongst 
Eastern peoples generally the gate of a town is 
the place of concourse, of business, and especi- 
ally of justice. In Patriarchal times the chief 
" went out to the gate of the city, and there, 



after preparing his seat in the street," dis- 
charged his duties amid the respectful saluta- 
tions of the princes, nobles, and elders. 1 So it 
was that Boaz went up to " the gate of the city 
and sat him down there " ; he then took ten 
men of the " elders of the city," bade them sit 
down by him and there discuss the case of 
Naomi.* In Deuteronomy xvi. 18 we read : — 
"Judges and officers shalt thou make thee in 
all thy gates which the Lord thy God giveth 
thee throughout thy tribes." In the Iliad also 
it is stated that the Trojan elders assembled in 
the gates of their towns to determine causes, 
and Vergil represents Dido as dispensing justice 
at the gates of a temple. In somewhat later 
times it is from the door of the King's or 
Judge's house that judgments were delivered. 
"Grudge not one against another, lest ye be 
condemned : behold, the judge standeth before 
the door." 3 The custom of giving judgments 
from the gate of a city or from the door of the 
ruler's house prevails in many Eastern countries 
to the present day. In the Kingdom of Morocco 
the courts of justice are held in the gates of the 
capital, while in the Kingdom of the Wanyoro 
of Central Africa it is the custom for petitioners 
to kneel down before the king's door " at a 
distance of ten paces to set forth their requests 
and receive the king's decisions." 

If we may believe the statements concerning 
the virtues of Rekhmara, he possessed all the 
good qualities of an upright and honest judge. 
He tells us that he did not " lean to one side 
more than to the other side," nor " weigh the 
truth for exchange" ; 4 and further, that he never 
accepted "a bribe." 6 He was patient with 
witnesses, "keen in deliberating," 6 and "not 
passionate." 7 He was learned in the law — 
"carried the law of the king in his hand" 8 — 

1 Job xxix. 7-10. 2 Ruth iv. 2. 8 James v. 9. 
4 PI. viii., 1. 37. 5 PI. viii., 1. 25. 6 PI. viii., 1. 36. 

7 PL viii., 1. 37. 

8 PI. viii., 1. 34 : the original will permit of the restora- 
tion [hepu] ne 8eien em tet-a. 



Digitized by 



THE LIFE AND FAMILY 



HISTORY OF REKHMARA 



19 



and always discerned clearly what was the right 
thing to be done. 1 He merely remonstrated 
with those who offended against the law 
through ignorance, 2 but wilful wrongdoers he 
imprisoned. 3 He tells us that he kept a careful 
eye 4 upon the dictates of his conscience, and 
set up truth as his guiding star. Educated in 
the service of the goddess Ma'at, it was his aim 
" to raise up truth to the heights of heaven, 
and to circulate her beauties over the breadth 
of the earth." 6 In order that the poor and 
oppressed might have free access to him, it was 
his custom to walk abroad in the early morning, 
accompanied only by a few servants and 
scribes, so that he might listen to their 
grievances : 6 no one who so approached him 
was repulsed, and there were no tearful eyes 
among his petitioners. 7 " I judged the weak," 
he says, "with the strong, I protected those 
who were weak, and I punished the evildoers 
and violent persons. ... I encouraged the 
tearful and helpless, I supported the widow 
without a husband, and established the son in 
the inheritance of his father." 8 

Besides his duties as Vezir of Upper Egypt, 
Governor of Thebes, and Chief Justice, 
Rekhmara had much other onerous work to 
attend to. As mer per ne Amen, "Steward of 
the Temple of Amen," 9 he had to supervise 
and manage the vast estates and numerous 
buildings belonging to the great Theban god. 
It is curious that he does not appear to have 
held any position connected with the priest- 
hood 10 of the temple ; he was only concerned 
with the civil administration of its huge estates. 
First, as hherp hat nebt ne Amen em Apet, 



i PL vii., 1. 2. 2 PL viii., 1. 33. 8 PL viii., 1. 33. 

* PL vii., 1. 10. 6 PL vii., 1. 19. 6 PL xv. 

7 PL iv., 11. 5, 6. 8 PL vii., 11. 20, 21. » PL vii., 1. 3. 
10 Vezirs of Upper Egypt were also often High Priests of 
Amen, but curiously enough the only religious titles borne 
by Rekhmara are connected with the cults of Ma'at and 
Ptah. This is the more remarkable when we read that 
" he made regulations for the priests and guided the Uab- 
priests in their affairs." (PL xvi. f 11. B, 6.) 



" Regulator of all the work of Amen in 
Karnak," he had to inspect the buildings and 
the work of the sculptors, stone-masons, and 
brickmakers. 11 He had also to supervise the 
work of the numerous artificers, such as that 
of the metal workers, carpenters and wood 
carvers, and even of the leather workers and 
beadmakers. 12 Not only had he to inspect all 
this ; he had also to give to each man his 
instructions and to guide the unskilful. 13 As 
her sesheta, " Chief of the Secrets," it was his 
duty to receive the grain, honey, wine, and other 
stores for the Treasury of the temple, 14 and to 
see that the provisions, etc., for the priests and 
officials were properly kept under s^al. 16 

Another important duty that Rekhmara had 
to perform was connected with the Stewardship 
of Amen. During the foreign expeditions of 
Thothmes III. many thousands of prisoners 
were captured by the Egyptian commanders 
and sent as slaves to work for the god at 
Thebes. Here they were lodged in the State 
prison, and a mutilated scene shows Rekhmara 
inspectingthem and giving instructions concern- 
ing their proper maintenance, 16 The commoner 
prisoners were forced to labour in the fields, 
others were trained to attend to their Egyptian 
masters' personal wants, while the women-folk 
and children of the vassal princes were kept in 
the ard attached to the temple, to serve as 
hostages for the good behaviour of their fathers 
or relatives. Occasionally the vassal princes 
themselves paid a visit to the capital, in order 
that they might present gifts to their powerful 
conqueror, but they do not seem to have been 
received by him in person. The Vezir was 
deputed to receive them, and one of the most 



11 Pis. xix.-xxi. 12 Pis. xvi.-xviii. 
13 Pis. xvi. and xix. 14 Pis. xii.-xiv. 

15 Pis. xii. and xxii. In PL vii., 1. 3, he tells us that 
he closed the doors of the Treasury and sealed them with 
his signet ring. 

16 This and other scenes alluded to below will be pub- 
lished in the second volume on the Tomb of Kekhmara. 



Digitized by 



20 



THE TOMB OF REKHMARA 



interesting scenes in Rekhmara' s tomb shows 
him accompanied by courtiers receiving the 
foreigners in audience. 

Notwithstanding the multitudinous duties 
which must have devolved on the shoulders of 
the Vezir, Rekhmara found time to personally 
superintend his own private estates, and several 
scenes show him inspecting the work of his 
fields, examining his herds of cattle, as well as 
supervising the vintage in his vineyard and the 
culture of plants in his garden. When the 
cares of the State and his own personal affairs 
permitted, he would go out into the desert and, 
accompanied by his huntsmen and hounds, 
divert his ^aind by the pleasures of the chase, 
or, accompanied by his wife and children, go 
out in his canoe to the swamps and amuse him- 
self by harpooning great fish and hippopotami. 

On the death of the sovereign whom he had 
served so well the Vezir embarked on one of 



the vessels of the royal fleet, and, with the 
other officers of State, sailed down the river to 
Hat-sekhem (Hu), where the heir of the throne 
(Amenhetep II.) was at the time residing. A 
very interesting scene shows the veteran states- 
man going to pay his homage to the young 
king, in order to present him with the royal 
insignia. Very shortly after this event Rekhmara 
seems either to have died or been dismissed 
from his exalted office, and the royal favours 
which had been so lavishly bestowed upon his 
ancestors and himself were transferred to a 
member of another family. Conscious of having 
acted honourably during his long life, he is 
proud to record that "he left no bad deeds 
behind him," 1 and that accordingly, when his 
acts should be weighed in the balance by the 
Almighty Judge, he would be found "triumphant 
before the gods." 2 

1 PI. vii., 1. 18. * PL vii., 1. 23. 



Digitized by 



II. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE TOMB 



AND 



EXPLANATION OF THE SCENES AND INSCRIPTIONS 



A. ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES AND 
SYSTEM OF DECORATION. 

(Plate I.) • 

The tomb is excavated in a good stratum of 
the limestone rock of the Gebel ShSkh Abd el 
Kurneh, and consists of six distinct parts. 
The slope of the hill has been cut back several 
yards so as to form an imposing 

(1) Fa?ade with a level platform or court in 
front. Where the rock was uneven above the 
doorway, a wall of stones has been raised, 
partly to protect the entrance to the tomb 
from debris falling from above, and partly to 
give the fa?ade a more finished appearance. 
The wall was probably originally covered with 
a coating of plaster and painted, 1 but in its 
present state it is entirely devoid of any 
architectural or other ornamentation. In the 
centre of the fapade a plain doorway 9 feet 

6 inches high by 4 feet 6^ inches broad (the 
thickness of the wall being 8 feet) has been 
cut, which gives entrance to 

(2) The vestibule. This is a rectangular 
chamber, measuring 67 feet 10 inches long by 

7 feet 8 inches wide. The ceiling here is flat, 
and the height of the chamber about 11 feet. 
In the centre opposite to the entrance to the 
tomb an opening has been cut which forms a 

1 I have found evidence of several facades of tombs at 
Thebes being coated with stucco and painted : the facade 
of the tomb of Sen-mut (temp. Hatshepsut) was certainly 
painted, and that of the Vezir User (temp. Thothmes III.) 
was richly sculptured. 



doorway, emphasized by jambs and lintel 
(raised about 1^ inches from the surface of 
the wall). This opening leads to 

(3) The long narrow passage with curiously 
sloping ceiling. It measures 88 feet 5 inches 
long by 6 feet 10 inches broad, and the ceiling, 
which at the doorway is 9 feet 6 inches high, 
slopes upwards to the inner end, where it is 
exactly 25ft. high. At the end of this passage is 

(4) A small shrine cut in the rock, 18 feet 

5 inches above the level of the passage floor ; 
it is consequently inaccessible to the visitor. 
It probably contained a statue of Rekhmara, 
and was closed by a granite false-door, which 
was removed from the tomb by Champollion, 
and is now preserved in the Museum of the 
Louvre. This little shrine measures 4 feet 

6 inches deep by 3 feet broad, and it is 5 feet 
2 inches in height. In the floor of the long 
narrow passage have been cut 

(5) Two vertical shafts, which lead to 

(6) The sarcophagi chambers. These were 
both opened by the officials of the Gizeh 
Museum in 1894, and I am told that they were 
each about 16 feet in depth. No remains of 
any kind were found in them. 

With the exception of some incised hiero- 
glyphs upon the lintel and jambs of the door- 
way to the long narrow passage, and upon the 
false-door at the inner end of the tomb, there is 
no sculptured ornamentation. The decoration 
consists entirely of painting applied to the 
limestone, which had been prepared for its 
reception by a thin layer of stucco. 



21 



Digitized by 



Google 



REKHMARA 

of the animals, and the eyelashes of men's 
faces being rendered with great care. 




Sketch Plan of the Tomb. 



B. THE SCENES AND INSCRIPTIONS. 



22 THE LIFE OF 

The ceilings of the vestibule and passage 
were both richly painted, but unfortunately 
they have suffered much from the effects of 
smoke, bats and other causes. Longitudinally 
down the centre of both ceilings is depicted a 
yellow band (representing a wooden beam) 
upon which in blue hieroglyphs were various 
prayers for the benefit of Rekhmara's Ka. On 
either side of this yellow band the ceilings 
were decorated with a rosette pattern. The 
frieze in both vestibule and passage consisted 
of the Kheker ornament painted red, blue and 
green. Beneath this, and at the sides of 
the walls, is the common border of coloured 
rectangles (red, green, blue and yellow), sepa- 
rated by black lines enclosing a white line. 
Next the angles is the peculiar diamond 
pattern found in most Egyptian tombs. The 
dado, which rims round both chambers, was 
black (now in places faded to yellow) and 
is bordered above by bands of red and 
yellow. 

The jambs and lintel of the doorway to the 
long narrow passage, and the false-door at the 
inner end of the tomb, are painted pink and 
red, in order to resemble rose granite; the 
hieroglyphs upon them are picked out in 
green. The style of painting is uniform 
throughout the tomb, and the closest examina- 
tion of the paintings leads one to believe that 
but one master-artist was employed in their 
execution. The human figure is always care- 
fully drawn, and the paintings of Rekhmara, 
Meryt, Betau, and others, are undoubtedly 
portrait studies. The distinctive types of the 
foreigners depicted on the left-hand wall of 
the vestibule are admirably drawn, especially 
the negroes and the people of Semitic origin 
from Asia Minor. The quadrupeds, includ- 
ing the giraffe, bear, and hunting hounds, 
are also delineated with much skill. The 
hieroglyphs are in most cases given with 
considerable minuteness ; even such small 
details as the feathering of the birds, the hair 



1. The Vezir's Office, and the Inscription 
Detailing his Duties. 

(Plates H.-IV.) z£E J&L#~**'/f 

This important scene and the inscription 
accompanying it are painted upon the outer wall 
of the vestibule on the left-hand side of the 
entrance doorway (see Sketch Plan C, p. 22). 
Both have been traced with great care, and my 
final copy of the long inscription was checked 
in the tomb by Dr. Spiegelberg. The hiero- 
glyphs in the original are beautifully painted, 
and show a considerable amount of detail, but 
in the plates they are reproduced in outline 
only. Unhappily both scene and inscription 
have been much mutilated ; the figure of 



Digitized by 



THE SCENES AND INSCRIPTIONS 



23 



Rekhmara at the inner end has been entirely 
erased, and the lower halves of lines 29-36 
have been cut away. A flake of stone from 
the centre of the wall has also fallen and 
carried with it part of lines 9-15. Fortunately 
the destroyed part of the scene can be restored 
from the description of the vezir's court given 
in the first two lines of the long inscription, 
and many of the lacunae in the inscription it- 
self can be filled / in from two parallel texts 
which I discovered in the tombs of the Vezirs 
User (who immediately preceded Rekhmara) 
and Amenemapt ( Rekhmara' s successor under 
Amenhetep II.). The inscription above the 
erased figure of Rekhmara on plate iv. records 
that the scene represented " the sitting of the 
vezir in his divan or audience-hall to hear 
petitions " presented by the people of Upper 
Egypt. The audience-hall, called Ma, 1 is 



longitudinally in two rows, each column having 
a palm-leafed capital and a circular, perhaps 
stone, base. Each column bears the cartouche 
of the reigning monarch and the name of the 
vezir. At the inner end of the hall was 
represented a slightly-raised dais bearing a 
throne of the ordinary jj -shape, upon which 
was seated Rekhmara. He was shown clad in 
a shenep-g&rment (the long raiment peculiar to 
the vezirial office), and immediately before him 
was spread upon the ground a ^era-mat. Furs 
or skins were placed at his back and beneath 
his feet, and in the^ right hand he held a 

^-baton. On the vezir's right stood the 

mer dkhenut, " superintendent of the interior " 
(of the hall), and upon his left the art Jchet ak, 
an officer whose duty it was to attend to 
" things entering." In front of the vezir (vide 



Ueteeoger 


^fttt — fe? 8uribe.ofth.Vee* 


Petitioner* 


TU^5> J Wderiof Ae SomAemTWie ^^H" 




o o 


9 


e? 

S 
•* 

Petitioners 5T 

1 

• 


§• g« TLo 40 Parchment BoDe 

1 ! 00 






o o 


o 


Petition era 


TIm^jIJj jj Kldera of the SoatWralW 




Meeaeuger 





L 



Plan of the VezIr's Audience-hall. 



here shown to be a rectangular chamber 
bounded at the back and sides by walls; at 
the front it is open to the air. 2 The roof is 
supported by six slender columns arranged 



1 On this word see Newberry in Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch., 
vol. xxii., pp. 99-105. 

2 See the plan constructed from the scene on plate iv., 
with details added from the information given in the 
hieroglyphic inscription, plate ii. 



plate iv.) are spread, upon four mats with 
fringed edges, the forty parchment rolls (con- 
taining the Books of the Law ?), and in the 
aisles on either side are arranged the twenty 
urn res met, " elders of the Southern Tens," who 
may be seen in the second and fourth rows of 
plate iv. Behind these officials stood the 
vezir's scribes, ten a-side and facing one another 
(rows 1 and 5). The petitioners are depicted 



Digitized by 



24 



THE LIFE OF EEKHMARA 



in the third row ; they are brought by officers 
of the court armed with short staves, down the 
central passage or nave. The space outside 
the hall is filled by the vezir' s messengers and 
other officers, and four of the petitioners kiss 
the ground before an usher. 

Summary of the VezIr's Inscription (Pirates II., III.). 

In the first half of line 1 is given the heading or title 
of the inscription : — " Instructions concerning the sitting 
of the Governor of the (royal) city, the Vezir of Thebes, 
and of the palace in the audience-hall of the vezir, as to 
everything that the lord (i.e., the vezir) does." Then 
follow (11. 1 and 2) instructions for the constitution and 
arrangement of the vezir's court, and the text proceeds 
(11. 3, 4) to give an account of that officer's daily duties. 
He first receives reports from his uput, "messengers," 
concerning : — (a) the khetem, " sealed store-rooms " ; (6) 
the affairs of the mennu, " garrisons " of the north and 
south ; (c) the per seten, " royal domain " ; and (d) the 
affairs of the mer shent, " superintendent of the courtiers," 1 
the shenti, "courtiers," and the mer kherp, "superin- 
tendent of the levies" (?). When the above-mentioned 
reports have been received, the vezir is instructed (1. 5) to 
enter the palace precincts with his colleague the mer 
khetem, " Chancellor of the Exchequer " (lit. " Super- 
intendent of the Seal "), in order that they may " pay 
their respects to " the King. On their return [to the kha, 
or office ?], the mer khetem^ " Chancellor of the Exchequer," 
is ordered (1. 6) to report to the vezir that, " according to 
the reports of the art seshem, " officers on duty " (?), 
everything in the royal domain is in order. The vezir 
likewise has to communicate (1. 7) to the mer khetem, 
" Chancellor of the Exchequer," the reports that he him- 
self has received — " Then, after each of the nobles has 
reported, the vezir shall order all the doors of the royal 
domain to be opened " so that business may be transacted. 
In the next eight lines (11. 9-16) are given rules as to the 
procedure to be followed (a) in the aryt or judicial court, 
and (b) in the court of appeal. Then follow (1. 17) instruc- 
tions as to petitions concerning agricultural land, and the 
permitted extent of delays connected with their settlement 
(1. 18), two months being the limit of time for such as 
concern Upper and Lower Egypt, although for Thebes and 
its environs butthree days are allowed "according to that 
which is in the law." The detailed duties of the vezir 
now begin (1. 19), and each new paragraph is preceded by 
the emphatic third person singular entef, " it is he who," 
etc. 

(1) Concerning the kenbetiu ne u, " surveyors of the 
districts," who are appointed by the vezir, and whose duty 



1 Or perhaps " superintendent of litigation." Aeg. 
Zeit.j xxxvi., 135. 



• 



it is " to report the affairs of their districts to him." 
They have also to bring all the dmt-per, "census-lists," to 
be sealed by the vezir (1. 19). 

(2) Concerning allotments of irrigated land and disputes 
relating to boundary stones ; all petitions connected there- 
with are ordered to be " put in writing " (11. 20, 21). 

(3) Concerning every message of the house of the king 
sent to the mayors and other officials (1. 21). 

(4) Concerning the royal " wanderings " (royal pro- 
gresses?) and military expeditions (11. 21, 22). 

(5) Relating to the appointment of the enti em sertu in 
Upper and Lower Egypt, in the Tep-res (i.e., Elephantine 
to Siut) and in Ntf-ur (Abydos). These officers are 
ordered to report to the vezir " everything that happens 
with them on the first day of every four months " ; they 
must also bring to the vezir " the writings relating to 
their affairs, together with their auditors " (?) (1. 22). 

(6) Concerning " the marshalling of soldiers who attend 
the king in his journeys up or down river " (1. 23). 

(7) Concerning the arrears of taxes in the net-res 
(Thebes) and in the palace. 

(8) 

(9) Concerning the cutting down of trees (1. 24). 

(10) Concerning the canals which are under the super- 
vision of the " surveyors of districts." 

(11) Concerning the orders to the mayors and other 
officers regarding "the ploughing of fields in summer 
time." 

(12) Concerning the appointment of the superintendent 
of the Shentu in the office of the royal domain. 

(13) Concerning the grievances of mayors and other 
officials. 

(14) Concerning robberies in the provinces. 

(15) Concerning the orders given to soldiers and to the 
scribes of the temam. 

(16) Concerning the boundaries of the nomes. 

(17) Concerning proclamations (?). 

(18) Concerning quarrels " when a man comes to words 
with his brother" (1. 27). 

(19) Concerning promotions to the aryt (1. 27). 

(20) Concerning the shortcomings of offerings (1. 28). 

(21) Concerning the division of tribute among the 
temples (1. 29). 

(22) Concerning " the opening of the house of gold with 
the superintendent of the seal and the inspection of the 
tribute " (11. 30, 31), and other matters connected there- 
with (1. 32). 

(23) Concerning the khetemti kefa ab and the annual 
inundation (1. 33). 

(24) Concerning cargo boats (1. 34). 

(25) Concerning the ordering of all the messengers of 
the royal domain (1. 34). 

(26) Relating to the pilots and steersmen of vessels 
(1.35). 

(27) Concerning the appointment of (?) the door-keepers 
of the areryt (1. 36). 



Digitized by 



THE SCENES AND INSCRIPTIONS 



2B 



NOTES ON THE HIEROGLYPHIC TEXT OF PLATES II. AND III. 

Somb of the hieroglyphic signs being new to science, I give notes upon their colouring and other details. I also add 
below the important variants which occur in the two parallel texts discovered by me at Gurneh, as well as all 
possible restorations from those texts. Unfortunately both the texts are much mutilated, but they often serve 
as a help in deciphering the inscription. B = the text in the tomb of Amenemapt (under Amenhetep II.); C = that 
in the tomb of User (first quarter of reign of Thothmes III.). 

"£fZ2^ ° <r " ~ t> e^r /< 

1. The determinative of the word ken is evidently some kind of mat. It is coloured pink, with red horizontal lines. M " "^7? 

The sign before her ef at the end of the line is coloured white, with red lines. 

2. B inserts the preposition thus : kheiy er d-ef • shesem XL. sesh em bah-ef ® uru res em bah-ef ® 

mer dkhenuti, etc. 

2,3. B reads nen erdt sedem ^^^Xfl^^^X^ |^ ^ — hereafter 

upt the three strokes of the plural!. 
5. B gives the determinative of seba [j=p not [333 ; erti urti is also determined by q=p q=p. 

8. B gives the plural an 0 ^ j and lower down reads erde selchem ser neb em \ <=> em kha, etc. 

9. B enables us to restore the whole lacuna : em [) g (j ( | ( ^ <=> [JJ] de ef su, etc. 

(C gives I f A ). 

10. B and C both give em erde setau ef [ < ^ > J ^ ^ au ef, etc. The restoration^ 

was suggested to me by Professor Spiegelberg. 

12. C reads 'ZZl ^ etc., and lower down shenyt set her es (j em, etc. * 

13. The new sign <5 i 8 coloured blue, with a red dash at the top. B partly restores the lacuna : zat her sedem em 

- a \ ^ SHIII^ jk^ *»> etc - 1x1 ° the word deba is 1 4-- 

14. B and C both give upt-ef em J ~ (| ^ A sep sen. 

16. B gives the plural sign after sedem, so read khetem ne ^ ^ ^ [|]* 

16, Restore maa-ef su ^ shemt-ef At the end of the line C gives jf^ for seshu. 

19. The second ^ in entet is restored from B. In C khert is correctly determined with cf^rr. 

20. B reads kher maa ^ ^ entet set, etc. Lower down read ar gert <=> 

21. B perhaps reads better er sa ar-efem ^ |, and lower down mesebeb upU neb ne per seten ^ | fl The last 

sign pekher corresponds to in C, but Rekhmara's text gives the best reading. 

22. Restore enti em sertu ^ j ||\^ res ha, etc. 

23. The certain restoration khed was first suggested by Prof. Steindorf. B gives hek hetep <=> Kha ef: heqhetep 

is curious but correct. 

25. B gives entef ar *~^S em kha, etc. 

26. B gives the variants x=>Jp {\ for ^ ^ and ^ (j for sesh at the end of the line. 



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26 



THE LIFE OF REKHMARA 



Line. 

27. C allows us to restore sekhet 



i i ip 



p (° r ^^ , ?) 1 o^S j i \ ne ^' e<;c ' , an( * ^ preserves the whole sen- 
tence lower down, netef sefcm andn £jp j ^ <=> |j ^ ^ ^ cnfe/; etc. 

28. B gives for the lower part of this line ||||^=^ ® ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^e/m. 

Q /WW 

29. B gives six signs at the end of the line A (1. 30) areryt, etc. 

J J www 

«. b * „ £ v. 1) k ~ 3- g „ ^ © o -j* | m 

32. B reads j ^ in place of ^ ^ and follows on semd nef sen *zrr (J ^ ^ ® ^ ^ |1 ^ (] 



33. Bg.ves^y^^pgJ^lo^^^g^^^^^lgwhichl cannot 

nect with Rekhmara's text. 

34. B gives® 



con- 



which I connect with Rekhmara's text. 



35. At the bottom of the line B enables us to add : ^ a-w*a <^ >$_jf -jj- J J 1 n P 2 ^1 

(1 J (] ^ (j [ ™ (1. 36) dm-y<, etc. 



2. Inspection of the " ii^m ! 



or !Fa:rg$ 0/ t/ppe?' 



Z3*£a S-r~E-Z2> :AAs<r, 



£g ^27^/ is*.// 0 ( Plates V., VI.) 

On the inner surface of the walls on either side 
of the entrance doorway (see Sketch Plan A, 
B) are two scenes 1 showing Rekhmara (whose 
figure is in each case destroyed) inspecting the 
• taxes which were paid into the office of the 
Vezir of Thebes by the officials of the adminis- 
tration of the Tep-res or Upper Egypt. Both 
scenes originally consisted of five rows each, 
but the lower one on the south side has been 
entirely destroyed, and only a fragment remains 
of that on the north side. The fourth row is 
in both cases also considerably damaged. The 
inscriptions above the erased figures of Rekh- 
mara explain the import of the scenes. That 

1 Neither Champollion nor Virey noticed the existence 
of the scene upon the left wall (plate v.). Of that upon 
the right wall (plate vi.), Virey simply quotes Champollion's 
words : "Dans la derniere scene, on voit au registre 
8up6rieur des hommes qui apportant des anneaux de metal 
dans des corbeilles. Le reste n'est guere visible " (Notices, 
p. 509). 



upon the south side of the entrance doorway 
(plate v.) records : — 

" The inspection and reckoning of the taxea of the office 
of the vezir of the southern city (i.e., Thebes), which are 
rendered by the mayors, the sheikhs, the surveyors of 
districts, the registrars of the cultivated land, their 
scribes and the scribes of their fields which are in the 
Tep-res, beginning at Elephantine and the garrison town 
of Bigeh, made according to the writings of ancient times 
by the . . . Governor of Thebes, the Vezir, Rekhmara." 

The corresponding painting on the other side 
of the doorway (plate vi.) is a continuation of 
the same scene with a similar inscription above 
the erased figure of Rekhmara : — 

"The inspection and reckoning of the taxes of the 
office of the southern city, which are rendered by the 
mayors, the sheikhs, the surveyors of districts, the 
registrars of the cultivated land, their scribes and [the 
scribes] of their fields, further from Kuft as far as S[iut], 
by the . . . Governor of Thebes, the Vezir, Rekhmara." 

The arrangement of the officials is curious, 
and at the first glance it may appear that, in 
approaching the vezir, no definite order was 
followed. But a closer examination of the 
scenes show that the officials were marshalled 
firstly in the geographical order of the localities 



Digitized by 



THE SCENES AND INSCRIPTIONS 



27 



they represented, and then according to their 
respective rank : the procession, it should be 
observed, approaches the minister not in single 
file, but five abreast. Bach row was headed by 
an officer of the vezir, wearing a pointed kilt 
and holding in his right hand a small staff or 
rod. 

The information given in these two scenes is 
the first that has been found concerning the 
taxation of the ancient Egyptians. I therefore 
give below, in a tabulated form, a complete list 
of the towns and localities mentioned, as well as 
the officials concerned in their administration 



and the taxes which they paid, of course in 
kind. It is most unfortunate that some of the 
place-names and titles, especially in the lower 
rows, should have been destroyed ; but a com- 
parison of the titles and names still preserved 
with those of local officers recorded on other 
Egyptian monuments permits us to restore at 
least some of them with a certain degree of 
probability. In the following list all such con- 
jectural restorations are inserted within square 
brackets, and in each instance a reference is 
given to the monument on which such place- 
name or title occurs. 



SOUTH OF THEBES. (Plate V.) 



Town or Locality. 



1. Sen-met, Bigeh 
(garrison) 



2. Abu, Elephantine 
(garrison) 



(town) 



Officials. 



them, " commandant " 

(Row 1, figure 1) 



Manufactures, Products, etc. 



thesu, " commandant " 

(Row 2, figure 1) 



[hd, "mayor," cf. Mar., Cat. Abyd., 305 ; 
at a later date (Rameses V.) Pleyte 
et Rossi, Papyrus de Turin, PL 51] 
(Row 4, figure 1 ?) 
[uhem, "registrar." See below, sesh 
ne uhem] 

(Row 5, figure 1) 
sesh ne uhem, "scribe of the registrar" 
(Row 3, figure 1) 



kenbeti, " surveyor " . 

(Row 3, figure 2) 



seshj "scribe" . 

(Row 3, figure 3) 



neb teben XX., " gold twenty teben." 
[da] kasu nefer, " good leather bands " (?). 
kaf, " apes " (Cercopithecus griseo-viridis, Desm.). 
nesa pat nebes, " skins (?) containing cakes of nebak 
fruit (?)." 

nebes khefa X., "ten balls of nebak fruit." 
pezt X., " ten bows." 
hddu (?). 

meshesh (?) dat [ne]t ash XX., " twenty large staves of 
acacia- wood." 

neb teben XL. [em met] anu, "gold forty teben in 

tribute blocks (?)." 
Also strings of gold beads. • 
[d]a-kasu nefer, " good leather bands " (?). 
[nesa] pat nebes, " skins containing cakes of nebak fruit." 
[nebes] khefa, " balls of nebak fruit." 
umet aft, " a chest of umet-cloth." 



neb teben VI. em met anu, " gold six teben in tribute 
blocks (?)." 

Also silver in rings and strings of gold beads. 

hebestu pet, "garments." 

semat dat, " a long cloth (?)." 

neb teben II., " gold two teben." 

hebestu pet, " garments." 

semat dat I., " one long cloth (?)." 

umet aft, " a chest of umet-cloth.. 11 

neb teben , "gold teben and a string of gold beads." 



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28 



THE LIFE OF REKHMARA 



Town or Locality. 



3. Nubyt, Ombos 



4. TWrte, Edfu 



B. Nekhen, Hiera- 
conpolis 
(Kom el Ahmar) 



[6. Nekheb, El Kab 



7. Per-meriu, K6m 
Mereh 



8. Anyt, Esneh 
(town) 



(islands) 



Officials. 



uhem, " registrar " 

(Row 4, figure 1) 
sesh ne uhem, " scribe of the registrar " 

(Row 4, figure 2) 

kenbet'i, " surveyor " . 

(Row 3, figure 4) 



a second kenbeti (?) 

(Row 3, figure B) 

ha, "mayor" 

(Row 2, figure 2) 



sesh-ef, " his scribe " . 

(Row 2, figure 3) 
uhem, " registrar " 

(Row 1, figure 2) 

ha, " mayor "... 

(Row 3, figure 6) 



kenbeti, " surveyor" . 

(Row 3, figure 8) 



#d, "mayor." Undoubtedly one of the 
missing figures in row 1, 4, or B. For 
the title, cf . Tomb of Paheri at El Kab] 

hek het, " sheikh " 

(Row 2, figure 4) 

[ha, "mayor." Probably one of the 
missing figures in row 1, 4, or B. 
For the title, cf. Tomb of Paheri 
at El Kab, also Louvre, C. 41, and 
Recueil de Travaux, xiv., 26] 

hek het, " sheikh " . 

(Row 1, figure B) 

kenbeti, " surveyor " . 

(Row 2, figure 6) 

sesh aau ne Anyt, " scribe of the 
islands Esneh " 

(Row 2, figure B) 



Manufactures, Products, etc. 



neb feben IL, " gold two teben." 

neb feben em met anu, "gold teben in tribute 

blocks." 
semat oat, 11 a long cloth (?)." 

hez-neb teben [em] met anu, " silver teben [in] 

tribute blocks." 
negu IL, " two mature oxen." 
umet aft, " a chest of imetf-cloth." 
neb teben IV. [em] met anu, " gold four teben in tribute 

blocks." 

neb teben VIII, [em] met anu, " gold eight teben in 

tribute blocks." 
semat dot, " a long cloth (?)." 

gold rings, a string of gold and carnelian beads, and 

one mature ox. 
gold rings and one mature ox. 



neb teben IV., " gold four teben." 
hez-neb teben III, " silver three teben." 
semat oat III, " three long pieces of cloth (?)." 
negu, " a mature ox." 

her-sa, " a two-year-old ox." [blocks." 
neb teben III. em met anu, " gold three teben in tribute 
shasha [yt her neb], "strings of beads in gold." 
zu, " sw-cloth." 

umet aft, " a chest of umct-cloth." 
negu IL, " two mature oxen." 



neb feben " gold one teben." 
umet off, " a chest of inne£-cloth." 
Also one mature ox. 



hez-neb [feben ], "silver teben." 

neb [feben] VIIL, " gold eight teben." 

Also two mature oxen, grain, and bundles of [dw&w] -reeds. 

gold and silver rings. 

umet off, " a chest of umet-cloth." 

at hekt II. ( + /.?)," barley two ( + one ?) fofa-ineasures." 

neb feben IL, " gold two teben." 

hez-neb feben \, " silver half a teben. * 

shashat her neb, " a string of beads in gold." 

[umet (?) aff], " a chest of ime£-cloth." 

unfu, " one cow." 

feti, "one yearling." 



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THE SCENES AND INSCRIPTIONS 



20 



Town or Locality. 

9. Aa-mchateru } Gce' 

bel Sheikh Musa 
(cf. Recueil de 
Trav., x., 133) 

10. Aau enti em 

Tep-res, the 
islands of the 
Tep-res (i.e., 
Upper Egypt) 



11. Aau Khesbu (?) 

net Khctyt (?), 
"the cultiva- 
ted islands of 
Khetyt(?) " 

12. Ani, Erment . 

(town) 



Officials. 



(district) 



13. Per-hather, Wes- 
tern Thebes (?) 



uhem, " registrar " 

(Row 3, figure 7) 



sesh, " scribe " . 

(Row 2, figure 1) 



seshj " scribe " . 

(Row 1, figure 6) 



[ha, "mayor." Boulaq Papyri, pi. 
xxl., cf. also the title ha em Per- 
mentu, Rec. de Trav., vii., p. 5] 

uhem, " registrar " 

(Row 1, figure 7) 

sesh ne uhem, " scribe of the registrar " 

(Row 1, figure 8) 
[uhem ne u, " registrar of the district," 

cf. official below] 
sesh [ne uhem] ne u ne Arii, 1 " scribe 
of the registrar of the district of 
Erment " 

(Row 2, figure 8) 



keribeti, " surveyor " . 

(Row 3, figure 10) 



uhem, " registrar " 

(Row 4, last figure) 



Manufactures, Products, etc. 
neb teben , " gold teben. ' ' 

hez neb [teben] \, " silver half a teben." Also a string 
of carnelian beads. 

neb teben II, " gold two teben," and a string of car- 
nelian beads. 

at [hekt] , "barley hekt." 

negu II., " two mature oxen." 
tet V., 11 five yearlings." 

dnb theniat , " bundles of dw&w-reeds." 

mennu XXX., " thirty pigeons." 

gold, strings of gold beads, a chest of cloth, two two- 
year-olds, and two yearlings. 



neb teben III, " gold three teben." 
dnb themat, " bundles of dn&-reeds." 
umet aft, " a chest of umet-cloth" 
gold rings. 
zu, " zw-cloth." 



neb teben II., "gold two teben." 
negu II, " two mature oxen." 
teti V., "five yearlings." 
tep ne aut V. 

mennu XL., " forty pigeons." 
umet aft, " a chest *of ttrae£-cloth." 
bati, an amphora of " honey." 
at, " barley." 

neb teben IV., "gold four teben." 

hez-neb teben , "silver teben." 

shashayt her [neb], " strings of beads in gold." 
umet aft, " a chest of cloth." 
zu, "zw-cloth." 

The figure, etc., entirely destroyed. 



Bead "I" instead of "t" in the plate. 



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30 THE LIFE OF RE&HMARA 



NORTH OF THEBES. (Plate VI.) 



Town or Locality. 


Officials. 


Manufactures, Products, etc. 


1. 




One officer (title destroyed) 


[hez~] neb teben I., " silver one teben." 






(Row 1, figure 1) 


neb teben III., " gold three teben." 




within the town 




a string of carnelian beads. 




(i.e., Thebes ?) 




umet aft, " a chest of wmef-cloth." 
her sa II., "two two-year-old oxen." 
tet III, "three yearlings." 


2. 


Res-neft, Kamu- 


sesh ne u, " scribe of the district " 


gold and silver rings, and a string of gold beads. 




la {f) (aistrict) 


(Row 1, figure 2) 


timet aft, " a chest of u met -cloth." 

bati, an amphora of " honey." 

at hekt III, "three hekt of barley." 

[negu IL], " two mature oxen." 

her sa III, " three two-year-old oxen." 

[tet IV.], "four yearlings." 


8. 


KesY, Kus . 


The title of the first officer is destroyed 
(Row 4, first of the figures preserved) 

sesh (?), "scribe "(?). 

(Row 5, only figures preserved) 


neb teben , " gold teben." 

hez-neb teben , "silver teben." 

also cattle and honey. 
neb teben III., " three teben of gold." 
shashat her neb, " a string of beads in gold." 
also cloth. 


4. 


Keoti, jLuit 
(garrison) 
(town) 


[them, " commandant " 

ha, " mayor." The two titles occur on 
a stele dated in the reign of Antef V., 
Petrie, Koptos, pi. viii. In the tomb 
of Ramenkhepersenb {temp. Thoth- 
mes III.) at thebes, two more officials 
connected with the administration 
of Kebti are named. These are : — 

/it / c tiiii&u/ it v lyuuti, cmt/i vi tut? 

pUllCt) OI JjlUIV) aUU 
tnpt* Tinfi apt vipfoli 11 0 ICohtS ^ nrnTrorn nr* 

111%, 1 xXrClfoCf' /rCC/Ur /CO JVCC/ttj kUVOI iiui 

4*Vin crrklH-nAArinrr T*arrirmci f\t Thrift "1 
Ul L11U uuill-LRMl lllg icglUllo Ul Xv lilt J 


• 




(district) 


kenbeti ne u, " surveyor of the dis- 
trict " 

(Row 2, figure 1) 


hez-neb teben , "silver teben." 

neb teben " gold half a teben." 
uah hekt X, " ten hekt of durrah grain." 
bdtX h[ebent], " one hebent of honey." 
[ab V.], "five calves." 


B. Ant, Dendera . 


It is curious that the title of no official 






(town) 


of the town of Dendera has been 






Ul OOOl vou 






(district) 


kenbetX ne u, "surveyor of the dis- 


neb teben , "gold teben." 




trict" 

(Row 2, figure 2) 


hez-neb teben, " silver teben." 

a string of gold beads. 

nah hekt , " hekt of durrah grain." 

at hekt X, " ten hekt of barley." 
bati hebent, " one hebent of honey." 
negu, " one mature ox." 
[her-sa], " one two-year-old ox." 
ab V, " five calves." 



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THE SCENES AND INSCRIPTIONS 



81 



Town or Locality. 


Officials. 


Manufactures, Products, etc. 




"3k At ^ VVtOtTAI* ^ 


neb teben v., gold nve teben. 


hat 


(xvow l, ngure o) 


hez-neb teben I. em met anu, " silver one teben 






in tribute blocks." 






/cw CO., two hundred cakes of dum-nut bread. 






ta sekhet M., " one thousand loaves of se/c/ie£-bread." 






uaen (r) en 






uah, " durrah. -*jw>* ^/ 






df, " barley." 






[&d£i], five amphora of " honey." 






ten sacks of (?) 






[CAijc//tcit in. j tnree ounaies oi cini/ct-reecLs. 






negu, "two mature oxen." 






/it, 1 ~oU j lux u w u y octr uici u&oui 






tec in. , tnree yeanings. 






tic/ v ., nve cai v©8. 






mennwtf CCCCC, " five hundred pigeons." 


7. Uahset . • 


tihem, "registrar " . • . 


nefr teben ^, " half a teben of gold." 




(Row 2, figure 3) 


umeVi aft, "a chest of wwe£-cloth." 






batt hcbcn\i\, " a hebent of honey." 






her -so, I, " one two-year-old ox." 




sesh ne uhem, "scribe of the registrar" 


" one piece (?) of 2M-cloth." 




(Row 2 figure 4^ 


and one two-year-old ox (?). 


8. Het'SekhemfDioa- 


uhem, " registrar " 


neb teben V., " five teben of gold." 


polis Parva (H(i) 


(Row 4, second figure preserved) 


ret/ /«e/cc, one neKi oi cet/-grain. 






«/id^ AeAf , " one hekt of *7wx^-grain." 






itaA AeA:r, " one nekt of aurran grain. 






sut hekt, "one hekt of SMt-gram. 






rest hekt ill., tnree neRt ot soutnern gram. 






also crates of pigeons, and bundles of dn&u-reeds. 






neb teben III., " three teben of gold," also some silver. 




(Row 4, third figure preserved) 






[mi, mayor, ci. Mar., cat. Aoyao8,o\jo\ 




(town) 






uhem, registrar .... 


neb teben I., one teben of gold. 




(Row 2, figure 5) 


timet, " timet -cloth." 






zu, 2W-clotn. 






exxrt tieoeni, a neDent oi noney. 






her 8a I, "one two-year-old ox." 




sesh-ef, "his (i.e., the registrar's) 


neb teben I., " one teben of gold." 




scribe " 


her sa III, "three two-year-old oxen." 




(Row 2, figure 6) 






Kenbet'i, " surveyor " . 


rest hekt II, " two hekt of southern grain." 




(Row 3, third figure from end) 




(district) 


ne w, " scribe of the district " 


neb teben L, " one teben of gold." 




(Row 3, fourth figure from end) 


shashat her neb I, "one string of beads in gold." 






[negu II], " two mature oxen." 






at hekt I, " one hekt of barley." 



Digitized by 



32 



THE LIFE OF REKHMAltA 



Town or Locality. 



10. Thin% Thinis 



11. Min, Ekhmim . 
(town) 
(district) 



12. Thebu, Itfit 



13. Per-Heru. 



14. Ta-Kayt, An- 
taeopolis, Kau 
el Kebir 



Officials. 



ha, " mayor "... 

(Row 1, figure 4) 



sesh ne u, " scribe of the district" 
(Row 3, second figure from end) 



[ha, "mayor," tomb of Mentu-her- 
khepsh-ef (temp. Thothmes I.-III.) 
at Thebes, cf. also Mar., Cat. Abyd., 
192] 

uhem, "registrar," and 
sesh-ef, " his scribe " . 

(Row 1, figures B and 6) 



ha, " mayor " 

(Row 1, last figure) 



In a papyrus concerning the taxation 
of dates (temp. Thothmes III.) this 
town seems to have been then in a 
flourishing condition. [Pap. Louvre, 
3320] 



Manufactures, Products, etc. 



neb teben VI, "six teben of gold." 

hez-ncb teben J, 1 "a half teben of silver." 

negu, " two mature oxen." 

her-sa III., " three two-year-old oxen." 

teti VI, " six yearlings." 

ab V., "five calves." 

at hekt II. + X, " two + ten hekt of barley." 

uah hekt L., "fifty hekt of durrah." 

ta ne uah (?) ku XX., " twenty loaves of durrah and 

dum-nuts." 
ku, " dishes of dum-nut bread." 
bati hebent, " one hebent of honey." 
dnb themat X., " ten bundles of dn&-reeds." 
also ten makkatif (baskets). 



neb teben II, " two teben of gold." 
hez-neb [teben] I, "one teben of silver." 
shashat her [neb] II, "two strings 

gold." ' 
negu, " three mature oxen." 
[tet], " three (?) yearlings." 
ab [III], " three calves." 
[at] hekt II, " barley two hekt." 
and two hundred coils of Uf (?) rope. 



of beads in 



negu II, " two mature oxen." 

rest hekt III, " three hekt of rest-grain." 

at, " barley." 

bati, an amphora of " honey." 



shu, "papyrus rolls." 
untu I, " one cow." 
her-sa I, " one two-year-old ox." 
rest hekt I, " one hekt of southern grain." 
sut hekt X., " ten hekt of sw^-grain." 
also two dishes of dum-bread, rope, and bundles of 
dn&M-reeds. 



1 Insert the hieroglyph Kes in the plate. 



Digitized by 



GoogI 



THE SCENES AND INSCRIPTIONS 



33 



Town or Locality. 


Officials. 


Manufactures, Products, etc. 


15. Saut, Siut 




[shu], 11 papyrus rolls." 




(Row 2, figure 7 ; the name of Siut can 


negu /., " one mature ox." 




be traced in the original) 


tet I, " one yearling." 

ta ne sckhet M., "one thousand loaves of sekhct-breeA.' 

sut hekt III, " three hekt of $tt£-grain." 

rest hekt II, " two hekt of southern grain." 

bati hebent, " one hebent of honey." 

ku X., " ten dishes of dum-nut bread." 

a bundle of anbu-reedB. 




[uhem, "registrar." See below, sesh 






ne uhem] 






sesh ne uhem II, " two scribes of the 


untu I, " one cow." 




registrar " 


at, " barley." 

bati, one amphora of " honey." 






[shu], "papyrus rolls." 
and some grain. 



Inscription Recounting the Honours of 
Rekhmara. . 



(Plates VII., Vllt) 



This inscription, consisting of forty-five hori- 
zontal lines of hieroglyphs, is painted upon the 
S.W. wall of the vestibule (see Sketch Plan D, 
p. 22). The hieroglyphs and dividing lines are 
coloured in green of the same tint as given in 
the plates. Unfortunately, several flaws in the 
rock have caused pieces of the wall to fall, and 
much of the surface plaster has flaked away 
from the lower half of the inscription. No 
early copy of the text exists, and as far back as 
1828 it seems to have been in the same ruinous 
condition : Champollion, writing in that year, 
states that it was " presque invisible." Virey 
made no attempt to copy it, and contented 
himself by remarking it " est trop effac^e pour 
6tre 6tudi£e utilement." 

In the first three lines are given the name 
and several of the titles of Rekhmara. The 
vezir, speaking in the first person singular, 
then recounts some of the honours which 
the monarch conferred upon him. In 11. 8-10, 
the wisdom of Thothmes III. is extolled, and 
the inscription then reverts back to Rekhmara, 



who in the next 30 lines goes on to review his 
own virtues. The last four lines contain 
Rekhmara' s address to visitors, inviting them 
to recite the Te hetep seten formula to the gods 
for the benefit of his Ka, and promising that 
if they obey him their names shall live. 1 



4. Inscription Recording the Installation of 
Rekhmara into the Vezir ate. 



(Plates IX., X.) 



On the left-hand side of the doorway leading 



to the long inner passage (Sketch Plan D,^.^^. a^T^^c/^ 
p. 22) is a much mutilated scene showin g^, z^s-c- Jjc^ (~f^Z~^j 
Thothmes III. seated in a beautifully deco-^Z^" 1 
rated naos. Facing the king outside the naos 
was painted a standing figure of Rekhmara, 
but this has been carefully erased ; the name 
of Rekhmara above the figure has also been 
cut away. To the left of this scene is an in- 
scription (plate x.) in twenty vertical lines, 
reaching from the frieze to the dado, with a 
title or heading in four short lines (plate ix.). 
No early copy of this inscription has been 



1 Translations of parts of this text will be found in the 
Introduction, § III., pp. 18, 19. 

c 



Digitized by 



34 



THE LIFE OF REKHMARA 



made (except a few hieroglyphs from the upper 
parts of the lines given in the publication of 
Virey), but fragments of two parallel texts 
have enabled me to check my copy in some 
places. These parallel texts I discovered at 
Kurneh in 1895; the first in the tomb of User, 
Rekhmara's predecessor in the vezirial office; 
the second in the tomb of Hapu, the Vezir of 
Upper Egypt under Thothmes IV. It is much 
to be regretted that this inscription is in such 
a fragmentary state, for it appears to record 
the instructions given by Egyptian kings to 
their Vezirs on the appointment of those 
officers to the vezirate. From the title (11. 
1-4) it would seem that these instructions 
were given in the form of a speech delivered 
in the monarch's audience-hall (uahh) before 
all the assembled government officials (ken- 
betiu). 

The King first speaks of the audience-hall 
(kha) of the Vezir, recommending " watchful- 
ness over all that which is done in it, for 
behold it makes firm the whole land" (1. 5). 
He goes on to exhort his ministers not to be 
" mild, but severe in his orders " ; not to be 
partial to the cause of the rich, or to make 
the slightest distinction between the wealthy 
and the poor, "for every man is as every 
man " (1. 6). With regard to all petitioners, 
he instructs him to act strictly according to 
the law (1. 8). In 1. 13 is mentioned, a Vezir 
•named Khety, who seems to have been long 
remembered for his severity, and is perhaps 
(though this is not quite clear) quoted as an 
example not to be followed. Judicial matters 
are then discussed, and the Vezir is again 
exhorted not to be partial to one side more 
than to the other, for " leaning to one side is 
an abomination of the gods" (1. 15). The 
chief minister of state is instructed also to be- 
ware of malice and bad temper, for if a man 
" gives fear millions of times, there are things 
of evil in it," and " people will not say of 
him, ' he is a man!'" (1. 19). In 1. 21 the 



chief scribe of the Vezir is apparently addressed 
and exhorted to " write true " (?). The King 
then goes on to speak of the Vezir's audience- 
hall, and gives some general instructions con- 
cerning the methods of procedure to be observed 
in it ; but the last three lines of the inscrip- 
tion are unfortunately very obscure. 

5. Rehhmara and the Members of His Family. 
(Plate XI.) 

A/or 3i s / \^ 3? : 

The mutilated scene upon the north-east wall 
of the vestibule (see Sketch Plan K, p. 22) 
represented Rekhmara, accompanied by "his 
sister [i.e. wife] Meryt," seated before a table 
of offerings, while in front of them their son, 
" the scribe of the divine offerings [of Amen, 
Ramenkhepersenb]," recites the Te hetep seten 
formula for funeral offerings. The figures of 
Rekhmara and Meryt, as well as the table of 
offerings and the figure of Ramenkhepersenb, 
are entirely destroyed. On the right side of 
the wall are depicted the relatives and friends 
of the great Vezir. The uppermost group 
shows the Vezir Aa-ma-thu, the paternal 
grandfather of Rekhmara, accompanied by his 
wife Tamathu and their children ; six sons in 
the upper row, three daughters in the lower. 
The second group represents the Vezir User, ^-yi^r^ 
paternal uncle of Rekhmara, with his wife 
Thau and children ; three sons in the upper ^ 
row and five daughters in the lower. The two 
principal figures of the third group are en- 
tirely destroyed, but the hieroglyphs above 
them record the names of Neferuben and 
Betau, Rekhmara's parents. Behind them are 
their six children ; three sons and three 
daughters. Of the fourth group, only two 
inscriptions remain : the first records the name 
and titles of "a follower of the king in all 
countries, in the favour of the good god [i.e. 
the king], the overseer of the cattle of Amen, 
Bak, justified " ; the second gives the name of 
" his wife, the lady A-tau." The relationship 



Digitized by 



THE SCENES AND INSCRIPTIONS 



of these individuals to Rekhmara is not clear : 
perhaps we have here the names of Betau's 
or Meryt's parents, but I have not been able 
to find any corroborative evidence of this. 



6. Rekhmara Receives Grain, etc., in the 
Temple of Amen. 

(Plates XII., XIII., XIV.) 

Kekhmaea, seated on a chair and clad in the 
long robe of a vezir, with a staff in his right 
hand and a Kherp-b&ton in his left, Shcp uah bat 
em per hez ne het neter khetem shepses neb em 
[per Amen] em aat-ef her seshet, " receives uah- 
grain and honey in the treasury of the temple, 
and seals every precious thing in [the house of 
Amen], in his office (or rank) of Overseer of 
the Secrets." He is attended by twelve officials, 
including several scribes. In the uppermost 
row is represented the shep em uah em \_per 
Amen]/ 6 receipt of the waft-grain in [the house of 
Amen]." The scene shows an overseer, accom- 
panied by a scribe and three servants, measuring 
the grain (coloured a dark red) which has been 
brought in baskets by six husbandmen and 
piled up in a great heap before the vezir. In 
the middle row we see an overseer watching 
two men khuset uah em per hez ne [per Amen] 
er art dbt, " pounding the waft-grain in the 
treasury of [the house of Amen] in order to 
make loaves " ; other servants, hen ne at benert, 
"slaves of the Department of Dates," are 
separating the finely-pounded flour from the 
coarser grain. To the left, bakers are shown 
making the flour, mixed with honey, into pyra- 
midal and other shaped loaves, and placing the 
same in small brick-made ovens. A four- 
handled amphora of bat, " honey," as well as 
several smaller pots of the same, are also 
figured in this row. 

The third row shows the receipt of the 
"tribute of all countries" — the "precious 
things" mentioned in the inscription above the 
figure of Rekhmara, which it is stated were 



stored in the storehouses of the temple and 
required to be sealed by the vezir. 

Twelve mem useJchet, " captains of the boats," 
just arrived at Thebes, bow down to Rekhmara, 
and report to him that the per hez her ne geges, 
" treasury will overflow," with the dnu net set 
nebt, " tribute from all countries " (including 
Punt, the southern oases and the lands of the 
north) which they have brought. Behind the 
captain we see the her uselcht [ne Amen] neter 
hetepu, " chief of the transports of the divine 
offerings of Amen," superintending the removal 
of the tribute by porters from the boats to 
the storehouses of the temple. The tribute, 
after being examined by the sesh per hez, "scribe 
of the treasury," is registered in the official 
books by an assistant scribe ; it is then sorted 
and stored in the different departments of the 
per hez, " treasury." In the first room, the 
inscription over the door of which has been 
erased, are baskets (similar to those made at 
Esneh at the present day), sandals, mats, and 
amphorae. In the second room, the per hez 
neb ne het neter, " treasury of the temple," are 
bows, dhm "shields," logs of ebony, abu 
" ivory," ostrich feathers, bundles of nefu " cy- 

perus rhizomes " 1 gold and silver in 

dust or nuggets, bars, and rings, and a cage 
in which monkeys are disporting themselves. 
The third room, the uz ne het-neter, " magazine 
of the temple," contains bars of neb ne resi, 
" gold of the south," silver in rings, copper 
in ingots, mafelc " malachite," neter senter " in- 
cense," $efet-oil, bak " olive oil," bundles of 
kenen-reeds, and the§heps, " cinnamon (?) bark." 

7. Rekhmara Receives the Petitions of the Poor. 

(Plate XV.) 

This ^cene ls painted on the right-hand wall 
of the long passage leading to the shrine 
(Sketch Plan W, see p. 22). It originally 

1 On the word Nefu see Newberry in the Proc. Soc. 
Bibl. Arch., vol. xxii., Part 4, " Extracts," No. 16, 



Digitized by 



33 THE LIFE OF 

showed Rekhmara, accompanied by several of 
his attendants, giving audience to and receiv- 
ing petitions from the poor. The figure of the 
Vezir has been destroyed. The inscription 
describing the scene, however, is but little 
mutilated ; it records : — pert tep ta tep sebayt 
er art hesest em khert ra er setem metu relchyt 
spertu res ha nen gefen er ketet ur 9 " the going 
out upon the land in the early morning to 
make the daily favours, and to listen to the 
words of the people and to the petitions of 
the south and north, without making (any) 
distinction between the little and the great." 
The erased figure of Rekhmara may be re- 
stored from the scenes upon the opposite wall 
{vide pis. xvi. and xix.) ; he was shown stand- 
ing with a staff in his left hand and the baton 
in his right hand. The people seeking audi- 
ence were arranged in four rows; the lower 
two are entirely destroyed, the upper two 
considerably damaged. In the uppermost row 
we see an officer, accompanied by attendants 
and a scribe, with pencase and writing ma- 
terials in a leathern bag. Beyond are three 
women (one holding up a necklace as if in the 
act of offering it as a present), who appear to 
be dictating their grievances to a scribe, who 
is writing on a sheet of papyrus (only the two 
hands, the pencase, and the sheet of papyrus 
of the scribe are preserved). In the second 
row are shown several men approaching the 
Vezir : two are bending low before an officer, 
two are kneeling, and another raises his arms 
as if to attract attention. 

8. Rekhmara Inspects the Artificers of the 
Temple. 

(Plates XVI., XVII., XVIII.) 

With the exception of a few erased hieroglyphs 
above the figure of Rekhmara, this scene is in 
perfect preservation. It is painted on the 
upper half of the south-west wall of the pas- 



REKHMARA 

sage leading to the shrine (Sketch Plan P, 
p. 22), and represents the Vezir, accompanied 
by forty attendants, maa ubt nebt \aryt em 
per hez ne het neter ne per Amen\ ertet rehh se 
neb art ef em at ne hent neb> "inspecting all 
the handicrafts [made in the temple of the 
house of Amen] and teaching each man his 
duties concerning the handicraft of all occupa- 
tions.' ' 

The trades inspected are the bead-makers, 
furriers and leather-makers, sandal-makers, 
carpenters and wood-carvers, rope-makers, gold 
and silver smiths and metal workers and 
metal casters. 

In the uppermost row are depicted bead- 
makers and alabaster workers ; a man with a 
bow-drill drills holes and prepares beads for 
threading by his three companions, who are 
seated behind him. The beads are coloured 
blue and red (blue glaze or lapis lazuli and car- 
nelian), and were threaded on fine twine with- 
out the aid of a needle. To the left, a man 
with a nearly bald head is shown working at an 
alabaster vase. To the right, two superintend- 
ents present strings of beads and alabaster 
vases to Rekhmara. In the second row we see 
the furriers at work preparing parchment and 
hides for shields and for the sandal-makers. 
At the right end of the row two men 
present sandals and a number of shields 
and rolls of parchment to Rekhmara. In 
the same row, to the left, is represented a 
man cutting thin strips from a hide, which 
two others are twisting into a length of 
rope ; at the side of the seated man, two 
coils of rope, which have just been made, lie 
upon the ground. 

In the third row are shown the carpenters, 1 
wood -carvers, cabinet-makers, and painters. 
The carpenters saw rough wood up into planks 



1 The series of tools represented in this scene are of 
gresrt interest : they have all been drawn in colour, and 
will be reproduced in facsimile in a future volume. 



Digitized by 



THE SCENES AND INSCRIPTIONS 



37 



and prepare it for the cabinet-makers, who are 
represented making chairs, boxes, a slender 
wooden column with lotus-bud capital, and an 
elaborate shrine inlaid with ivory and precious 
woods. The inscription at the side of this 
shrine reads: — art dptu nbu heben'i sesenezem 
meru em ash ma ne tep khu an ser pen tete tep 
ret shesem ef am hemetu ef " making shrines in 
ivory, ebony, sesenezem wood, meru wood, in 
new cedar wood (?) of the hills, by this noble 
who gives the rule and guides the hands of 
his craftsmen." 

To the right of this shrine, beyond the men 
making a chair or couch, are two men working 
with glue, which is being heated in a pot over 
a charcoal fire ; also an artist engaged in paint- 
ing a finished cabinet, whilst his assistant is 
sharpening his reed-pen (?) with a bronze 
knife. In front of Rekhmara, the master- 
sculptor presents a beautiful finished statue of 
Thothmes III. (coloured black, and therefore 
probably of ebony) ; above him two super- 
intendents humbly kiss the ground and offer 
two boxes, upon one of which is a wooden 
head-rest and a handle for an ostrich feather- 
fan. 

The bottom row of the scene shows the gold 
and silver smiths at work, and a very interest- 
ing scene depicting the making of two bronze 
or copper doors for the temple of Amen at 
Karnak. Three labourers, behind whom is an 
overseer with a rod in his right hand, carry 
ingots of metal to the four groups of smelters 
who are seen at the left-hand end of the row. 
The metal is melted in crucibles over charcoal 
fires (which are blown by curious bellows 
worked by the feet), and then brought up to 
and poured into the mould. To the right of 
the mould a labourer empties a basket of char- 
coal, and above we see the two metal doors and 
three metal workers carrying tongs and blow- 
pipes. Over the heads of the three men 
carrying the metal is an inscription reading : — 

Meseb hemt satet an ne hen ef em nekht her set 



Bethenu er uzeh ne het neter ne Amen em apt 
sat-ef tern em nebu em sent er akhut net pet an 
mer net zat [Rekhmara]. 

" Bringing the ingots of copper which were 
brought by his victorious Majesty from the 
land of Syria for (making) the two doors of 
the temple of Amen in Karnak ; its threshold 

is inlaid in gold in to the horizon of 

heaven by the Governor of Thebes, the Vezir 
[ Rekhmara].' 9 

To the right are depicted the gold and silver 
smiths making and polishing vases : — 

art kerehet nebt ne neter hau se ashau uzu em 
neb her hez neb em kat nebt amt neheh, " making 

all the vases for the divine limbs and 

uz- vases in gold and silver in all the works of 
eternity." 

At the end of the row a servant weighs 
metal rings in a balance, while a scribe registers 
the numbers on a sheet of papyrus. The in- 
scription over the balance reads : — hent neby 

er dr heut nebt ne khem ma a seu net ra 

neb thenu-sen em heh hefen em bah mer net zat 

Rekhmara. "Weighing the gold 

[of the temple of Amen ?] to make all the 
vessels of the interior as ... . their arms 
every day, while they count in millions and 
hundreds of thousands before the Governor of 
Thebes, the Vezir Rekhmara." 

9. Rekhmara Inspects the Brickmakers 3 Sculp- 
tors , etc. j of the Temple. 

(Plates XIX.-XXI.) 

Beneath the scene showing Rekhmara inspect- 
ing the artificers of the temple is a painting 
representing the Vezir (whose figure is, as usual, 
erased) inspecting the Brickmakers, Sculptors, 
and Masons employed in the construction and 
decoration of certain temple buildings at 
Karnak (Sketch Plan K, see p. 22). With the 
exception of a small piece of painting (pi. 
xx.) immediately before the erased figure of 



Digitized by 



38 



THE LIFE OF EEKHMARA 



Rekhmara, and another little piece at the 
left-hand end, the two lower rows of this 
scene have been destroyed, and the whole of 
the painted plaster of the middle of the second 
row has fallen away. The Vezir, accompanied 
by attendants, maa hat nebt net neter-hetep ne 
Amen em Apt ertet rehh se neb uat-ef em aat-ef 

net mer hat an \mer net zat Rekhmara], 

" inspects all the works of the divine offerings 
of Amen of Karnak, and causes each man to 
know his road, in his office of superintendent 

of the works, by the [Governor of the 

City and Vezir Rekhmara]. ,, 

In the uppermost row we see a number of 
men, many of whom are certainly foreigners, 
engaged in making bricks. To the left (pi. 
xxi.) two men are shown filling water-jars with 
water from a well or small pond surrounded 
by trees ; to the right of this well, several men 
are employed in digging up earth with hoes, 
mixing it with water, and pressing out bricks 
with wooden moulds from the fresh-made mud. 
This little group of brickmakers is watched 
over by a reise, or overseer, who, with stick in 
hand, is seated on a brick close by. The in- 
scription records that the men are making 
bricks for building a new drd or " storehouse " 
at Karnak. The horizontal lines of hiero- 
glyphs over the next group to the right in- 
form us that the workers are " captives 
brought by his Majesty (i.e. Thothmes III.) 
for the works of the temple of Amen." These 
men carry off the sun-dried bricks to the brick- 
layers ; an officer, or " watchman," says to 
them, " The stick is in my hand, be not idle ! " 
The sloping mass of brickwork in front of the 
wall is perhaps the brick scaffolding which 
was used for hoisting the successive blocks of 
stone of which the wall was built. 1 The long 



1 The remains of a somewhat similar scaffolding may 
still be seen against the south-eastern face of the First 
Main Pylon (of Ptolemaic date) of the Great Temple of 
Amen at Karnak 



inscription above explains that the scene shows 
the men " laying bricks brought from the fields 
by slaves (?) in very great numbers ; they build 
with dexterous fingers; their overseers show 
themselves and keep a careful watch, listening 
to the speech of this wise noble \i.e. Rekhmara], 
who directs (?) the works, and gives instruc- 
tions to their superintendents. [They are 
given?] bread and beer and all good dishes. 
He commands them with a heart full of love 
for the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, 
Ramenkheper (Thothmes III.), to build a 
shrine (sekhem) : they give to him the re- 
ward through millions of years." 

The second row shows, to the left of the 
break, a reise, or ganger, directing his men, 
who are perhaps dragging blocks of squared 
stone to the temple buildings. To the right of 
the break we see sculptors engaged on wooden 
scaffoldings in sculpturing colossal red granite 
statues of the king. The inscription referring 
to this scene gives instructions (tep tet 2 ) con- 
cerning the sculptors' work, but it is too muti- 
lated to permit of being translated. 

In the third row we see to the left the 
masts, sails, and rigging of some large boats, 
probably those employed for bringing from 
the quarries of Assuan the enormous blocks of 
red granite out of which the sculptors hewed 
their colossal statues of the king. On the 
right of the break is an interesting group of 
stonemasons squaring blocks of limestone. 
Beneath this, in the fourth row, are three 
scribes busily engaged in writing. 

10. Rekhmara Inspects the Provisions of the 
Divine Offerings. 

(Plate XXII.) 

In the vestibuTe to the left of the scene repre- 
senting the paying of the taxes (at M on the 



2 This expression, meaning " rule of the hand," is in- 



Digitized by 



THE SCENES AND INSCRIPTIONS 



39 



Sketch Plan, p. 22) is a painting showing 
Rekhmara (whose figure is destroyed) inspect- 
ing the provisions of the divine offerings. The 
inscription reads : maa shebu ne neter hetepu 
ne rd neb maa . . . . ef mennu neferu kherp 
nef ne dthy neter nefer neb taui Bdmenkheper 
te dnlch zet er het-neter ne Amen reu peru netiu 
. . . . ef an .... mer net zat \^Relrfimara\ 
" inspecting the provisions of the divine offer- 
ings daily, and inspecting his .... and the 
beautiful monuments which he had made for 
the sovereign, the good god, Lord of the two 
worlds, Ramenkheper (Thothmes III.), giving 
life eternally, for the temple of Amen and the 
temples which are in his [city ?] by ... . the 
Governor of the City, the Vezir [Rekhmara]." 



teresting, and I know of no other inscription in which it 
is found. It may be compared with the common tep ret, 
"rule of the foot," or instructions concerning methods of 
procedure. 



In the two upper rows we see several statues 
of ebony and different kinds of stone ; these 
represent the king in various positions — seated, 
standing, kneeling, and in the attitude of 
running. The double statue in the second 
row shows the monarch seated by the side of 
his queen (Meryt-ra Hatshepset ?). To the 
right are figured numerous shields, bundles of 
spears and axes, helmets, necklaces and strings 
of beads, as well as alabaster vases, censers 
and castanets. In the two lower rows are 
seen bakers making various kinds of bread, 
and a procession of attendants of the super- 
intendent of the storehouse 1 bearing offerings 
and headed by a priest burning incense in a 
censer. The officer at the left end of the 
fourth row is Rekhmara's son, " the scribe of 
the divine offerings, Ramenkhepersenb. ,r ^ % rVgg^ . * ^ ^ 

1 This " Superintendent of the Storehouse of Amen "is " 
probably Rekhmara's son, Amenemhat (see p. 15). 



Digitized by 



LIST OF PLATES 



i. Plan and Sections of the Tomb, 
ii., in. The Vezir's Inscription. 

iv. The Vezir's Office, 
v., vi. Rekhmara Inspects the Apu or Taxes of Upper Egypt. 
vii., vin. Inscription on the South- West Wall of the Vestibule (The Stela). 

ix., x. Scene and Inscription on the North Wall of the Vestibule, . 
xi. Rekhmara and the Members of his Family. 
xii.-xiv. Rekhmara Receives Grain, etc., in the Temple of Amen, 
xv. Rekhmara Receives the Petitions of the Poor. 
xvi.-xviii. Rekhmara Inspects the Artificers of the Temple of Amen. 
xix.-xxi. Rekhmara Inspects the Brickmakers, Sculptors, etc., of the Temple of Amen, 
xxn. Rekhmara Inspects the Divine Offerings of the Temple of Amen. 



40 



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Thebes. Rekhmara. Pl. XVI. 




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REKHMARA INSPECTS THE BRICKMAKERS, SCULPTORS, &C.> OF THE TEMPLE. P.E.N. 

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Rekhmara. 



PL. XX. 



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